Social Norms and Social Context
 Norms That Matter: Diversity and Obligation in U.S. Political Participation. Forthcoming, University of Chicago Press. Read Chapter 1. In 1968, scholars Riker and Ordeshook introduced a game-changing variable to the study of political participation — the civic duty term – representing the social and psychological pressures that encourage individuals to engage. Since then, scholars have shown time and again that social pressure is a central motivator of political participation, gesturing to the assumed civic duty norm that pervades society. Yet, a survey of America’s social landscape suggests there is likely no monolithic civic duty norm, but rather diversity in the social and psychological obligations that drive people to the polls, into the streets, and to city council meetings. Developing a grounded theory of norm variation using qualitative interviews and principles of social psychology, I argue that norms about the value and meaning of political participation vary systematically by race in the United States with broad reaching consequences for representation in the American political system. Using original experiments and observational data that includes large samples of Asian, Black, Latino, and White Americans, I find that two norms – the honoring ancestors and helping hands norm – centrally define concepts of duty in the US. While these norms are universally endorsed, their connection to political participation varies by race, responsive to distinct groups histories and continued racial segregation. This variation matters for who shows up as politicized concepts of these norms powerfully predict both voting and non-voting participation, explain across-group national turnout trends, and can be primed by elites and peers alike to mobilize.
 What Makes a Good Neighbor? Race, Place and Norms of Political Participation. 2018. American Political Science Review, 112(3): 494-508. Social rewards for political participation vary across racial groups and community-types, with racial minorities living in co-racial spaces often providing more rewards to be active than Whites.
 Using the Past to Mobilize the Future. In progress. Can norm interventions focused on honoring ancestors increase voter participation among young adults in the US? In conjunction with Inspire2Vote.
 Race as Social Context. In progress. Which elements of racial embeddedness affect political orientations? With Lauren Davenport.
 Variations in Religious Social Norms Shape Political Participation. In progress. Explores how those who are religious interpret norms about helping others and honoring god with effects on political participation. With Michele Margolis.
The Carceral State
 Do Felony Disenfranchisement Laws (De)Mobilize? A Case of Surrogate Participation. 2019. Journal of Politics, 81(4): 1523-1527. Social connections to convicted felons can increase political participation, but only in states with the most punitive of felony disenfranchisement laws. With Mackenzie Israel-Trummel.
 A Drop in the Ocean: Direct Contact with the Carceral State and Attitudes Among Black and White Americans. Working paper. A Bayesian learning model incorporating race socialization and experiences during emergent adulthood explains why direct contact with the carceral state is associated with more attitude change among White than Black Americans. With Drew Engelhardt.
 Contact and Context: How Municipal Traffic Stops Shape Citizen Character. Working paper. Racial disparities in municipal context are associated with decreasing trust in the police above and beyond direct and proximal contact, but have no effect on political participation. With Derek Epp and Mackenzie Israel-Trummel.
 Revisiting Recruitment: Insights from Get-Out-the-Vote Field Experiments. 2016. With Melissa Michelson. In New Advances in the Study of Civic Volunteerism: Resources, Engagement, and Recruitment, ed. Casey Klofstad. Temple University Press.