Race and Carceral State Survey Data (RCSS)

The Race and Carceral State Survey was conducted in the summer of 2017 by principal investigators, Dr. Allison Anoll and Dr. Mackenzie Israel-Trummel. The survey includes a nationally diverse sample of 15,043 White and Black Americans and includes unique measures of carceral state contact, evaluations of the police, support for reform efforts, and social context.

The RCSS has been used in a number of published papers and working papers, including:

This data has a planned release date of Fall 2022. To access the data before it becomes public, please contact Allison Anoll at <>. To cite the data, please include the following: Anoll, Allison P. and Mackenzie Israel-Trummel. 2017. “The Race and Carceral State Survey.”

Participatory Social Norms Survey Data (PSNS)

The Participatory Social Norms Survey was conducted by principal investigator, Dr. Allison Anoll. It was fielded in March 2018 using the online platform, GfK. It was conducted in both English and Spanish and lasted roughly 12 minutes. All respondents were US citizens who were at least eighteen years of age. 1,000 White, 1,000 Latino, 1,003 Black, and 1,020 Asian respondents were included.

The PSNS includes a wide-range of questions about social context, social norms, racial context, racialized policy attitudes, and demographic information. The full instrumentation is available here. It is used in the following publications and working papers:

To access the PSNS, please write Dr. Allison Anoll at